The Evolution of Medical Ethics



Annas, George J. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Freyhofer, Horst H. The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2004.

Medical Experiments. 2007. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 16 April 2007 <>.

Miles, Steven H. The Hippocratic Oath and the Ethics of Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Nazi Medical Experiments. 9 April 2007. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 16 April 2007 < 10005168>.

Spitz, Vivien. Doctors from Hell: the Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. Boulder, CO: Sentient Publications, LLC, 2005.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race. Chapel Hill, NC: the University of North Carolina Press, 2004.


All photos were taken from the United States Holocause Memorial Museum photo archives and the Jewish Virtual Library, referenced above.